European Anti-Terrorism Poliry: A Trans-Atlantic Perspective
European counter-terrorism poliçy since 2001, unlike that of the United States, has
centered on the reinforcement of existing domestic law enforcement instruments and on
multilateral action internationallY creating at least the outlines of a distinctive'European
model.' Structural models, either realist or culturalist, provide at best partial explanations
for this. A more complete analYsis should take into account the role of politicalleaders and
partisan politics, the perceived ejjèctiveness and subjective status of available policy
instruments, and the role of multiple and competing programmatic elites within the state.