Awidespread belief in political and academic circles today is that the use
of new technologies will improve security of territories and populations.
Consequently, in pursuit of security, significant budgets have been
allocated to new technologies in Europe and in North America for many
years. This association between new technologies and security has been integrated
by various institutions charged with ensuring security: the military
uses technological tools to diminish the size of its equipments, to improve
its power/effect and its precision, or for identification and location purposes.
Intelligence services, police and customs use technological tools to
improve data collection and data analysis but also for identification of individuals
and authentication of identity documents. All of these actors see in
the use of technical tools, primarily informatics, the triple benefits of precision,
advantage of location and saving time. They assume that these benefits
will almost automatically lead to a higher effectiveness/efficiency in the pursuit
of their respective institutional missions and/or individual tasks.
The plethora of technological tools used today for security purposes