Since the cultural turn in translation studies in the late 1970s, translation theory and practice has been freed from stigmatization as a secondary, inferior and derivative endeavor. Instead, the work of translators has gradually gained more value and recognition as a creative pursuit with vast cultural and historical implications. As Esposito Frank and Tonkin oberserve in their volume on translation and culture, "Holding this world together, or keeping it apart, is language. At the boundaries of languages are the translators -¬mediators of cultures, enablers, but also gatekeepers" (viii). Self¬translators and bilingual authors take up this role as mediators even more so due to their unquestioned authority over both source and target texts and their positioning in two language and cultural systems simultaneously.